Models of organised provision

A range of different approaches to AA provision have been adopted across England and Wales. An analysis of models is set out below, with the most common models highlighted in bold.

There is no national recommendation in terms of effectiveness of each model. Local areas are free to select and combine models in order to best meet need and achieve the defined outcomes.

Table: Models of AA provision 

 

Volunteers

Sessional

Employee

Local authority

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Private

Model 4

Model 5

Model 6

Non profit

Model 7

Model 8

 

 
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Provider

Youth Offending Teams, Social Care

Appropriate adults

Appropriate adults are volunteers for the local authority, which likely already has a volunteer recruitment function with which the AA scheme is integrated.

Funding

Funding is internal but there may be contributions from other local partners. Additional income may be received from spot purchasing of AA services where required from other agencies (e.g. DWP)

Costs

In order to accurately assess costs, full cost recovery methods must be applied to take into account the costs of local authority staff in co-ordination and administration. Although volunteers are not paid, investment is required in training and retention. 

Co-ordination

A co-ordinator is employed and based within core adult social care or the emergency duty team. The co-ordinator manages all recruitment, initial training, ongoing development, rotas, supervision and support for appropriate adults. They are line managed within social care.

Referrals

Police contact the service directly for AAs.

Information sharing

Co-ordinator can access social care information sources directly or via colleagues both to gain and supply case information. Management information is shared with internal managers and other partners.

Example area

London Borough of Southwark / Avon & Somerset

Example provider

Southwark social services / Bristol YOT

 

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Provider

Youth Offending Teams, Social Care

Appropriate adults

Appropriate adults are paid directly by the local authority, on the basis of sessional contracts.

Funding

Funding is internal but there may be contributions from other local partners. Additional income may be received from spot purchasing of AA services where required from other agencies (e.g. DWP)

Costs

 In order to accurately assess costs, full cost recovery methods must be applied to take into account the costs of local authority staff in co-ordination and administration. In additional to being paid, sessional staff still require investment in initial and on-going professional development. 

Co-ordination

A member of local authority staff is tasked with co-ordinating provision, managing all recruitment, initial training, ongoing development, rotas, supervision and support for appropriate adults. 

Referrals

Police typically contact the co-ordinator to secure an AA. 

Information sharing

Co-ordinator can access social care information sources directly or via colleagues both to gain and supply case information. Management information is shared with internal managers and other partners.

Example area

London Borough of Sefton

Example provider

Sefton YOT (Early Intervention & Prevention)

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Provider

Youth Offending Teams, Social Care

Appropriate adults

YOT Officers and/or social workers act as an integrated part of their wider role. Sessional workers may also be used.

Funding

Funding is internal but there may be contributions from other local partners. Additional income may be received from spot purchasing of AA services where required from other agencies (e.g. DWP)

Costs

Costs may be less transparent where there is no dedicated budget line for AA provision.

Co-ordination

Co-ordination requirements are lower where employees act as AAs. Responsibility for ensuring staff are trained, developed and supported forms part of an employee’s role. Where sessional workers are used, the requirement for co-ordination increases.

Referrals

Police contact social care for AAs.

Information sharing

Social workers can access social care information sources directly both to gain and supply case information. Management information is shared with internal managers and other partners.

Example area

Warwickshire

Example provider

Warwickshire Youth Justice Service

 


 

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Provider

A private commercial organisation is commissioned to co-ordinate and deliver the scheme. 

Appropriate adults

Appropriate adults are volunteers from the local community.

Funding

Via contract by open tender.

Costs

Costs are usually fixed so do not rise or fall in-year dependent on call out volume.

Co-ordination

The private organisation employs staff to co-ordinate volunteers and administrative support. The co-ordinator manages all recruitment, initial training, ongoing development, rotas, supervision and support for appropriate adults and the reporting of management information to the commissioner. Co-ordination and administration is more likely to occur at national and/or regional level (rather than locally). 

Referrals

Depending on local arrangements, police may contact the provider directly for AAs, or may have to go via the funding organisation (i.e. social services or YOT).

Information sharing

Sharing of case information is dependent on local protocols and agreements.

Example area

West Yorkshire

Example provider

The Appropriate Adult Service

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Provider

A private commercial organisation is commissioned to co-ordinate and deliver the scheme.

Appropriate adults

AAs are usually casual/sessional workers, recruited locally.

Funding

Services are procured via an open competitive tender.

Costs

Contracts may be on a fixed basis or use a ‘pay as you go’ model paid by the hour.

Co-ordination

Co-ordination may be at the national or regional level. The provider manages all recruitment, initial training, ongoing development, rotas, supervision and support for appropriate adults and the reporting of management information to the commissioner

Referrals

Depending on the contract, police may contact the provider directly or be required to contact social services in the first instance (who then pass on referrals to the provider).

Information sharing

Sharing of case information is dependent on local protocols and agreements.

Example area

Hampshire, Southampton, Portsmouth and Isle of Wight

Example provider

The Appropriate Adult Service

 

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There are no known examples of formal arrangements with private sector organisations using employees. The typical proviate sector model is to use sessional staff as AAs, with paid employees in administrative and management functions. 

However, there are some new entrants to the market who do use paid staff, for example Appropriate Adults UK, at a relatively small scale. 

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Provider

A non-profit organisation co-ordinates and delivers the scheme. For example, this might be a local charity specialising in advocacy, social care or appropriate adults. Alternatively it might be a different public sector organisation (other than the funding organisation).

Appropriate adults

Appropriate adults are volunteers from the local community, and are often students and retired professionals. 

Funding

Via grant or contract. Increasingly commissioned by open tender but there may be elements of collaborative-design in the commissioning process.

Costs

Costs are usually fixed so do not rise or fall in-year dependent on call out volume. Although volunteers are not paid, investment is required in training and retention.

Co-ordination

The non-profit employs a local scheme co-ordinator and (depending on the size of the scheme) administrative support. The co-ordinator manages all recruitment, initial training, ongoing development, rotas, supervision and support for appropriate adults and the reporting of management information to the commissioner.

Referrals

Police contact non-profit directly for AAs.

Information sharing

Sharing of case information is dependent on local protocols and agreements.

Example area

Kent and Medway / Norfolk

Example provider

Young Lives Foundation / Equal Lives

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Provider

A non-profit organisation co-ordinates and delivers the scheme. For example, this might be a local charity specialising in advocacy, social care or appropriate adults. Alternatively it might be a different public sector organisation (other than the funding organisation).

Appropriate adults

Appropriate adults may be employees or casual/sessional/zero hours workers

Funding

Via grant or contract. Increasingly commissioned by open tender but there may be elements of collaborative-design in the commissioning process.

Costs

Costs are usually fixed so do not rise or fall in-year dependent on call out volume.

Co-ordination

The non-profit employs a local scheme co-ordinator and (depending on the size of the scheme) administrative support. The co-ordinator manages all recruitment, initial training, ongoing development, rotas, supervision and support for appropriate adults and the reporting of management information to the commissioner.

Referrals

Police typically contact non-profit directly for AAs.

Information sharing

Sharing of case information is dependent on local protocols and agreements. Police contact non-profit directly for AAs.

Example area

Greater Manchester and Lancashire

Example provider

Child Action North West


 

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Areas are not limited to the above models and may wish to innovate based on local circumstances. In a number of areas a hybrid approach is taken.

This might involve using different models to cover different times of day/week. For example, a YOT may provide during the day with an Emergency Duty Team or contracted provider covering out of hours.

Alternatively, there may be different approaches for different groups of people. This may be as simple as having one provider whose expertise is in children and one which is in vulnerable adults. Or it may be broken down further, for example with one provider for adults already engaged with social care services (e.g. adult social care) and another for those who are not (e.g. a contracted provider).

Some areas have chosen to add AA services to existing contracts at the point of recommissioning. For example, this could be a general advocacy contract or one to provide Independent Mental Health Advocates (under the Mental Health Act 1983) or Independent Mental Capacity Advocates (under the Mental Capacity Act 2005). If this is being considered, market research should be undertaken to establish whether there are sufficient providers in the area who are capable of delivering such combined contracts.

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